Cracow and Golden Age
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's ZÅ‚oty Wiek or Golden Age. Many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture were created, including ancient synagogues in KrakÃ³w's Jewish quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the Old Synagogue. During the reign of Casimir IV, various artists came to work and live in KrakÃ³w, and Johann Haller established a printing press in the city after Kasper Straube had printed the Calendarium Cracoviense, the first work printed in Poland, in 1473.
In 1520, the most famous church bell in Poland, named Zygmunt after Sigismund I of Poland, was cast by Hans Behem. At that time, Hans DÃ¼rer, a younger brother of artist and thinker Albrecht DÃ¼rer, was Sigismund's court painter. Hans von Kulmbach made altarpieces for several churches. In 1553, the Kazimierz district council gave the Jewish Qahal a licence for the right to build their own interior walls across the western section of the already existing defensive walls. The walls were expanded again in 1608 due to the growth of the community and influx of Jews from Bohemia. In 1572, King Sigismund II, the last of the Jagiellons, died childless. The Polish throne passed to Henry III of France and then to other foreign-based rulers in rapid succession, causing a decline in the city's importance that was worsened by pillaging during the Swedish invasion and by an outbreak of bubonic plague that left 20,000 of the city's residents dead. In 1596, Sigismund III of the Swedish House of Vasa moved the administrative capital of the Polish?Lithuanian Commonwealth from KrakÃ³w to Warsaw
The Vistula (/?v?stj?l?/; Polish: WisÅ‚a ?viswa) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at 1,047 kilometres (651 miles) in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 194,424 km2 (75,068 sq mi), of which 168,699 km2 (65,135 sq mi) lies within Poland (splitting the country in half). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.
The Vistula rises at Barania GÃ³ra in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters (4,000 ft) above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (BiaÅ‚a WiseÅ‚ka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna WiseÅ‚ka).1 It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including KrakÃ³w, Sandomierz, Warsaw, PÅ‚ock, WÅ‚ocÅ‚awek, ToruÅ„, Bydgoszcz, Åšwiecie, GrudziÄ…dz, Tczew and GdaÅ„sk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew WiÅ›lany) or directly into the GdaÅ„sk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, ÅšmiaÅ‚a WisÅ‚a, Martwa WisÅ‚a, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Krakow is an important cultural center of Polish, so while visiting this city, we can not miss a visit to one of Krakow's theaters. Even more attractive it may be a visit to one of Krakow's museums or galleries. In addition to visiting art museums, you can also visit the military museum or martyrdom and technical. It is also worth noting that in Krakow filmed several Polish TV series, and from time to time are shot in this city some movies, so with a little luck you can get also agreed to explore one of the film sets. Being in Krakow you can not forget to participate in one of the cultural events organized in the city.